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EU Policy Initiative of AI

This list is the result of background
research on policy initiatives in the area of artificial intelligence,
conducted by the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA). It is not an
exhaustive list, but a work in progress. Last updated on 15 October 2019.
If clicking on the link does not work, please copy
and paste the link in you browser.
Last check of links: 05.11.2019
Reference Origin Year Link
Ireland, Data Sharing and Governance Bill
2019, (2019)
IE 2019 https://www.oireachtas.ie/en/bills/bill/2018/55/
Luxembourg, Artificial Intelligence: a
strategic vision for Luxembourg, (2019)
LU 2019 https://digital-luxembourg.public.lu/sites/default/files/2019-05/AI_EN_1.pdf
Italy, Competition and Market Authority,
Big Data – Joint Knowledge Investigation (AGCM), (2019)
IT 2019 https://www.agcm.it/dotcmsdoc/allegati-news/Big_Data_Lineeguida_Raccomandazioni_di_policy.pdf
OECD, AI Policy Observatory, (2019), A
platform for AI information, evidence, and policy options
Int.Org. 2019 http://www.oecd.org/going-digital/ai/about-the-oecd-ai-policy-observatory.pdf
OECD, (2019), Digital Economy Policy Int.Org. 2019 https://www.oecd.org/going-digital/ai/oecd-creates-expert-group-to-foster-trust-in-artificial-intelligence.htm
OECD, (2019), Recommendation of the
Council on Artificial Intelligence, OECD/LEGAL/0449; 22 May 2019
Int.Org. 2019 https://legalinstruments.oecd.org/en/instruments/OECD-LEGAL-0449
Council of Europe, (2019), Commissioner
for Human Rights, Recommendation, Unboxing Artificial Intelligence: 10 steps
to protect Human Rights
CoE 2019 https://rm.coe.int/unboxing-artificial-intelligence-10-steps-to-protect-human-rights-reco/1680946e64
European Parliament Research Service,
(2019), A governance framework for algorithmic accountability and
EU 2019 http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2019/624262/EPRS_STU(2019)624262_EN.pdf
Council of Europe, (2019), Ad hoc
Committee on Artificial Intelligence (CAHAI)
CoE 2019 https://search.coe.int/cm/Pages/result_details.aspx?ObjectId=09000016809737a1
Austria, Austrian Council of Robotics and
Artificial Intelligence, (2018), ‘Die Zukunft Österreichs mit Robotik und
Künstlicher Intelligenz positiv gestalten’
AT 2018 https://www.acrai.at/images/download/ACRAI_whitebook_online_2018.pdf
Austria, Bundeskanzleramt, (2018),
Together. For our Austria. Government Programm 2017-2022
AT 2018 https://www.bundeskanzleramt.gv.at/dam/jcr:6caaf637-7b21-4b1e-927d-731d8e7ed549/Regierungsprogramm_2017%E2%80%932022.pdf
Austria, Report on Research and Technology
AT 2018 https://www.parlament.gv.at/PAKT/VHG/XXVI/III/III_00152/imfname_696297.pdf
Austria, Ministry for Transport, (2018),
Innovation and Technology , Traffic Telematics Report 2018
AT 2018 www.parlament.gv.at/PAKT/VHG/BR/III-BR/III-BR_00656/imfname_706480.pdf
Austria, Federal Minister for Transport,
(2018), Innovation and Technology and Minister of Economic Affairs
AT 2018 https://www.bundeskanzleramt.gv.at/dam/jcr:a7e971b7-5322-4233-a5ef-77f1c0df5e59/37_29_mrv.pdf
Royal Flemish Academy of Belgium for
Science and the Arts, (2018), Artifical Intelligence, Towards a Fourth
Industrial Revolution? (Artificiële intelligentie, Naar een vierde
industriële revolutie?)
BE 2018 http://www.kvab.be/sites/default/rest/blobs/1489/nw_artificieleintelligentie.pdf
Belgium, Flemish Department of Economy,
Science and Innovation, (2018), Stakeholder meeting on Artificial
Intelligence (Stakeholderoverleg Artificiële Intelligentie)
BE 2018 https://www.ewi-vlaanderen.be/sites/default/files/bestanden/departement_ewi_-_executive_summary_benchmark_study_ai_-_20190914.pdf
Belgium, Résolution 54K3203, (2018) BE 2018 http://www.lachambre.be/FLWB/PDF/54/3203/54K3203005.pdf
Belgium, Senate, Request by Belgian Senate
for a report on ‘Impact, Opportunities, Possibilities and Risks of Digital
Smart Society’, (2018)
BE 2018 http://www.senators.be/www/webdriver?MItabObj=pdf&MIcolObj=pdf&MInamObj=pdfid&MItypeObj=application/pdf&MIvalObj=100663911
Bulgaria, National Assembly
събрание), (2018),
Cybersecurity Act (Закон за
BG 2018 http://parliament.bg/bg/bills/ID/78098/
Bulgaria, Ministry of Transport,
Information Technology, and Communications, (2018), Digital Bulgaria 2025
National Programme,
България 2025’
BG 2018 https://www.mtitc.government.bg/sites/default/files/uploads/it/cifrova-bulgariya_-15082018.pdf
Bulgaria, Council of Ministers, (2017),
Concept Paper on the Digital Transformation of the Bulgarian Industry
(Industry 4.0),
за цифрова
(Индустрия 4.0)’
BG 2018 https://mi.government.bg/bg/themes/koncepciya-za-cifrova-transformaciya-na-balgarskata-industriya-industriya-4-0-1862-468.html
Bulgaria, Ministry of Transport,
Information Technology and Communications, (2018), Letter No
15-00-152/1.10.2018 to the Center for the Study of Democracy,
‘Писмо № 15-00-152/1.10.2018 г.
до Центъра
BG 2018 https://www.concession-sof.bg/upload/52/Sofia%20Airport%20Tender%20Documentation%20EN.pdf
Bulgaria, State e-Governance Agency,
(2018), Access to Spatial Data Act
BG 2018 https://www.mtitc.government.bg/bg/category/166
Germany, Recommendations of the Data
Ethics Commission for the Federal Government’s Strategy on Artificial
Intelligence, (2018)
DE 2018 https://www.bmi.bund.de/SharedDocs/pressemitteilungen/EN/2018/data-ethics-commission.html
Denmark, Ministry of Industry, Business
and Financial Affairs, (2018), Strategy for Denmark’s Digital Growth
DK 2018 https://eng.em.dk/media/10566/digital-growth-strategy-report_uk_web-2.pdf
Denmark, Minsitry of Finance, (2018),
Political Agreement of on Digitalisation-ready legislation, ‘Politisk aftale
om digitaliseringsklar lovgivning’
DK 2018 https://www.fm.dk/nyheder/pressemeddelelser/2018/01/digitaliseringsklar-1
Denmark, Parliament, The Justice
Committee, (2018), endelig besvarelse af spørgsmål nr. 926, 21 August 2018
DK 2018 https://www.ft.dk/samling/20171/almdel/reu/spm/926/svar/1505668/1928805/index.htm
Denmark, SIRI Commission
(SIRI-Kommissionen), (2018), AI, Media and Democracy
DK 2018 https://ida.dk/media/3441/ai-medier-og-demokrati-2019-siri-komissionen.pdf
Estonia, Republic of Estonia Government
Office, Estonia will have an artificial intelligence strategy, (2018)
EE 2018 https://riigikantselei.ee/en/news/estonia-will-have-artificial-intelligence-strategy
Estonia, Republic of Estonia Government
Office, (2018), Self-driving vechicles: beginning of an era, ‘Isejuhtivate
sõidukite ajastu algus’
EE 2018 https://riigikantselei.ee/sites/default/files/riigikantselei/strateegiaburoo/isejuhtivad_loppraport.pdf
Estonia, The National Audit Office,
(2018), E-state charter or Everyone’s rights in e-state
EE 2018 https://www.riigikontroll.ee/Riigikontrollipublikatsioonid/Muudpublikatsioonid/Eharta/tabid/305/language/en-US/Default.aspx
European Commission, Communication on
Artificial Intelligence for Europe, (2018)
EU 2018 https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/news/communication-artificial-intelligence-europe
Finnish Center for Artificial Intelligence FI 2018 https://fcai.fi
Finland, Ministry of Economic Affairs and
Employment of Finland, (2018), Artificial Intelligence Work: Four
perspectives on economics, employment, knowledge and ethics, ‘Tekoälyajan
työ: neljä näkökulmaa talouteen, työllisyyteen, osaamiseen ja etiikkaan’
FI 2018 https://tem.fi/julkaisu?pubid=URN:ISBN:978-952-327-311-5
Finland, Ministry of Economic Affairs and
Employment, (2017), Finland’s Age of Artificial Intelligence
FI 2018 http://julkaisut.valtioneuvosto.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/160391/TEMrap_47_2017_verkkojulkaisu.pdf
Finland, Eduskunta Riksdagen, (2018),
Government proposal to Parliament on the Secondary Use of Social and Health
Information and Related Laws, ”Hallituksen esitys eduskunnalle laiksi
sosiaali- ja terveystietojen toissijaisesta käytöstä sekä eräiksi siihen
liittyviksi laeiksi’
FI 2018 https://www.eduskunta.fi/FI/vaski/KasittelytiedotValtiopaivaasia/Sivut/HE_159+2017.aspx
Finland, Eduskunta Riksdagen, (2018)
Finnish One Hundred – A New Opportunity 2018-2037, ‘suomen sata uutta
mahdollisuutta 2018–2037’
FI 2018 https://www.eduskunta.fi/FI/tietoaeduskunnasta/julkaisut/Documents/tuvj_1+2018.pdf
France,Commission Nationale de
l’Informatique et des Libertés (CNIL), (2018), Algorithms and artificial
intelligence: CNIL’s report on the ethical issues
FR 2018 https://www.cnil.fr/sites/default/files/atoms/files/cnil_rapport_ai_gb_web.pdf
France, Mission Villani sur l’intelligence
artificielle, (2018), Giving Meaning to Artificial Intelligence, ‘Donner un
sens a l’intelligence Artificielle’
FR 2018 https://www.aiforhumanity.fr/pdfs/9782111457089_Rapport_Villani_accessible.pdf
Greece, Ministry of Digital Policy,
(2018), Telecommunications and Information, Press Release, The General
Secretary of Digital Policy at the Thessaloniki 2018 Summit, ‘O Γενικός
Πολιτικής στο
Thessaloniki Summit 2018′
EL 2018 https://mindigital.gr/old/index.php/41-ggpsp/media/3197-o-thessaloniki-summit-2018
Greece, EETT, (2018), Public Consultation
on Amendments to the Internet of Things Regulatory Framework
EL 2018 https://www.eett.gr/opencms/opencms/admin/News_new/news_0891.html
Ireland, Regulatory Impact Analysis,
Copyright and Other Intellectual Property Law Provisions Bill 2018, (2018)
IE 2018 https://dbei.gov.ie/en/Legislation/Legislation-Files/Regulatory-Impact-Analysis-Copyright-Other-IP-Law-Provisions-Bill-2018.pdf
Health Research Board, Health Research
Regulations 2018, (2018)
IE 2018 https://www.hrb.ie/funding/gdpr-guidance-for-researchers/gdpr-and-health-research/health-research-regulations-2018/
Ireland, Department of Justice and
Equality, (2017), Review of the Law on the Retention of and Access to
Communications Data
IE 2018 http://www.justice.ie/en/JELR/Review_of_the_Law_on_Retention_of_and_Access_to_Communications_Data.pdf/Files/Review_of_the_Law_on_Retention_of_and_Access_to_Communications_Data.pdf
Italy, Agcom (2018), Big
data, Interim report nell’ambito dell’indagine conoscitiva di cui alla
delibera n. 217/17/CONS
IT 2018 https://www.agcom.it/documents/10179/10875949/Allegato+4-9-2018/f9befcb1-4706-4daa-ad38-c0d767add5fd?version=1.0
Italy, Agcom (2018), Indagine
conoscitiva sui big data. Analisi della propensione degli utenti online a
consentire l’uso dei propri dati a fronte dell’erogazione di servizi. Primi
IT 2018 www.key4biz.it/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/IC53.pdf.
Lithuania, The National Reform Programme
for 2018, (2018)
LT 2018 https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/info/files/2018-european-semester-national-reform-programme-lithuania-en.pdf
Luxembourg, Projet de loi n°7348 relative
aux comptes inactifs, aux coffres-forts inactifs et aux contrats d’assurance
en déshérence et modifiant: 1. la loi modifiée du 23 décembre 1998 portant
création d’une commission de surveillance du secteur financier; et 2. la loi
modifiée du 7 décembre 2015 sur le secteur des assurances. (5166PMR), (2018)
LU 2018 https://www.cc.lu/uploads/tx_userccavis/5166PMR_comptes_et_coffres_forts_dormants.pdf
Latvia, Ministry of Environmental
Protection and Regional Development, MEPRD promotes Nordic-Baltic digital
co-operation and signs a declaration on the development of Artificial
Intelligence, (2018)
LV 2018 http://www.varam.gov.lv/lat/aktual/preses_relizes/?doc=26004
Latvia, Amendments to the Cabinet of
Ministers Regulations No. 134, "Provisions for a Unified Health
Information System", (2018)
LV 2018 https://likumi.lv/ta/id/299183
Malta, Innovative Technology Arrangements
and Services Act, (2018)
MT 2018 http://www.justiceservices.gov.mt/DownloadDocument.aspx?app=lp&itemid=29204&l=1
Netherlands, University of Utrecht,
Algoritmes en grondrechten, (2018)
NL 2018 https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/binaries/rijksoverheid/documenten/rapporten/2018/03/01/algoritmes-en-grondrechten/Algoritmes+en+grondrechten+opgemaakte+versie.pdf
TNO, Discrimination at Recruitment and
NL 2018 http://publications.tno.nl/publication/34627249/puJbur/TNO-2018-R11086.pdf
Netherlands, Minister of Finance, (2018), Draft Bill for Banking Information Reference Portal Act NL 2018 https://www.internetconsultatie.nl/verwijzingsportaalbankgegevens/document/3705
Netherlands, Minister of Health, Welfare
and Sport, (2018), Draft Act promoting cooperation and
lawful care
NL 2018 https://www.internetconsultatie.nl/rechtmatigezorg/document/3682
Netherlands, Minister of Justice and
Security, (2018), Draft bill on data processing by
NL 2018 https://www.internetconsultatie.nl/wgs/document/3718
Netherlands, Minister of Justice and
Security, (2018), Act Computer Criminality III
NL 2018 https://www.eerstekamer.nl/9370000/1/j9vvkfvj6b325az/vkryh09a3ux7/f=y.pdf
Netherlands, Minister of Justice and
Security / Minister of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality, (2018), Weapons and ammunition Act in relation to the Directive
(EU) 2017/853, Sent to the House of Representatives 3 July
NL 2018 https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/binaries/rijksoverheid/documenten/rapporten/2018/07/03/tk-wijziging-van-de-wwm-ivm-richtlijn-na-advies-rvs/tk-wijziging-van-de-wwm-ivm-richtlijn-na-advies-rvs.pdf
Netherlands, Ministry of Economic Affairs
and Climate Policy, (2018), Dutch digitalisation strategy
NL 2018 https://www.government.nl/binaries/government/documents/reports/2018/06/01/dutch-digitalisation-strategy/Dutch+Digitalisation+strategy+def.pdf
Doove, S. & Otten, D., (2018),
Exploratory study on the use of algoritms by government organisations
NL 2018 https://www.cbs.nl/-/media/_pdf/2018/48/verkennend%20onderzoek%20naar%20het%20gebruik%20van%20algoritmen%20binnen%20overheidsorganisaties.pdf
Netherlands, Dutch federation of patients
organisations (2018), New bill takes too little account of
patient privacy
NL 2018 https://www.patientenfederatie.nl/nieuws/nieuw-wetsvoorstel-houdt-te-weinig-rekening-met-privacy-patient
Poland, Coalition for Polish Innovation, KPI AI Lab, (2018) PL 2018 https://koalicjadlainnowacji.pl/en/
Poland, Ministry of Digital Affairs
(Ministerstwo Cyfryzacji) (2018), Założenia do strategii AI w
Polsce Plan działań Ministerstwa Cyfryzacji, 9 November 2018
PL 2018 https://www.gov.pl/web/cyfryzacja/sztuczna-inteligencja-polska-2118
Sweden, Ministry of Finances, (2018), The
law as a support for the digitalisation of public administration
SE 2018 www.regeringen.se/rattsliga-dokument/statens-offentliga-utredningar/2018/03/sou-201825/
Sweden, Sweden’s innovation agency
(Vinnova), (2018), Artificial intelligence in Swedish business and society
SE 2018 www.vinnova.se/publikationer/artificial-intelligence-in-swedish-business-and-society2/
Slovakia, Deputy Prime Minister of the
Slovak Republic for Investment and Informatics, (2018), Strategic Priority
the Data Management
SK 2018 http://www.informatizacia.sk/ext_dok-uppvii_sp_manazment_udajov_vfinal/24196c
Slovakia, Deputy Prime Ministerʼs
Office for Investments and Informatisation of the Slovak Republic, (2017),
Strategic Priority the Open Data
SK 2018 http://www.informatizacia.sk/strategicke-priority-erf/24190c
UK, House of Lords, (2018), Selected
Committee on Artificial Intelligence, AI in the UK: ready, willing and able?
UK 2018 https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld201719/ldselect/ldai/100/100.pdf
UK Parliament, Science and Technology
Committee, (2018), Algorithms in Decision Making
UK 2018 https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201719/cmselect/cmsctech/351/351.pdf
UK, UK Government Statistics Authority,
(2018), Draft Research Code of Practice and Draft Accreditation Criteria
UK 2018 https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/709514/2018-05-16_Research_Code_of_Practice_and_Accreditation_Criteria.pdf
UK Government, Statistics Authority, Draft
Statistics Statement of Principles and Draft Code of Practice on changes to
data systems, May 2018
UK 2018 https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/709515/2018-05-16_Statistics_Statement-of-Principles_and_CoP_Data_Systems.pdf
UK Government, Department for Digital,
Culture Media & Sport, Cabinet Office, Draft Information Sharing Code of
Practice, (2018)
UK 2018 https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/709519/2018-05_PSD_Debt_and_Fraud_Draft_Information_Sharing_Code_of_Practice.pdf
UK Government, Artificial Intelligence
Sector Deal, (2018)
UK 2018 https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/artificial-intelligence-sector-deal
Scotland, Scottish Government, (2018), Use
of Biometric Data and Technologies
UK 2018 https://www.gov.scot/About/Review/biometric-data
European Commission, (2018), A
multi-dimensional approach to disinformation
EU 2018 http://ec.europa.eu/newsroom/dae/document.cfm?doc_id=50271
European Commission, European Group on
Ethics in Science and New Technologies, (2018), Statement on artificial
Intelligence Robotics, and ‘Autonomous’ Systems
EU 2018 https://ec.europa.eu/research/ege/pdf/ege_ai_statement_2018.pdf
European Economic and Social Committee
(EESC), (2018), Adopted Opinion Investing in a smart, innovative and
sustainable industry
EU 2018 https://www.eesc.europa.eu/en/our-work/opinions-information-reports/opinions/investing-smart-innovative-and-sustainable-industry-referral
European Data Protection Supervisor,
(2018), Opinion 3/2018 on online manipulation and personal data
EU 2018 https://edps.europa.eu/sites/edp/files/publication/18-03-19_online_manipulation_en.pdf
ESMA (European Securities and Markets
Authority), the EBA (European Banking Authority), the EIOPA (European
Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority) and the Joint Committtee of
the European Supervisory Authorities, Joint Committee Final Report on Big
Data, (2018)
EU 2018 https://eiopa.europa.eu/Publications/Other
Documents/JC-2018-04 Joint Committee Final Report on Big Data.pdf
European Parliament, (2018), Draft Report
on a comprehensive European industrial policy on artificial intelligence and
robotics (2018/2088(INI)) Committee on Industry, Research and Energy
EU 2018 http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//NONSGML+COMPARL+PE-630.525+01+DOC+PDF+V0//EN&language=EN
European Parliament, (2018), Legislative
Observatory, Comprehensive European industrial policy on artificial
intelligence and robotics
EU 2018 https://oeil.secure.europarl.europa.eu/oeil/popups/ficheprocedure.do?lang=&reference=2018/2088(INI)
European Commission, (2018), Joint
Research Centre, Artificial Intelligence A european perspecive, EUR29425EN
EU 2018 https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/publication/eur-scientific-and-technical-research-reports/artificial-intelligence-european-perspective
Council of the European Union, (2018),
Thematic Reviews on ‘Social Aspects of Digitalisation’ (SPC) and
‘Digitalisation and Robotisation of Work’ (EMCO) – Endorsement of the joint
key messages, 14411/18
EU 2018 http://data.consilium.europa.eu/doc/document/ST-14411-2018-INIT/en/pdf
Council of the European Union, (2018),
Gender Equality, Youth and Digitalisation – Presidency Conclusions, 15308/18
EU 2018 https://www.consilium.europa.eu/media/37363/gender-equality_text-adopted.pdf
European Data Protection Supervisor
(EDPS), (2018), EDPS calls for closer alignment between consumer and data
protection rules in the EU
EU 2018 https://edps.europa.eu/node/4907
European Council, Council of the European
Union, (2018), Better security for ID documents: Council agrees its position
EU 2018 https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2018/11/14/better-security-for-id-documents-council-agrees-its-position/
European Commission, Joint Research
Centre, (2018), The impact of Artificial Intelligence on learning, teaching,
and education
EU 2018 https://publications.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/5cb8eee3-e888-11e8-b690-01aa75ed71a1?WT.mc_id=NEWSLETTER_December2018
The Public Voice, (2018), Universal
Guidelines for Artificial Intelligence
EU 2018 https://thepublicvoice.org/AI-universal-guidelines/
Privacy Commissioner for Personal Data,
Hong Kong, (2018), Annual Reports
OTHER 2018 https://www.pcpd.org.hk/english/resources_centre/publications/annual_report/annualreport2018.html
The Norwegian Data Protection Authority,
(2018), Artificial Intelligence and Privacy
OTHER 2018 https://www.datatilsynet.no/globalassets/global/english/ai-and-privacy.pdf
Urban and Regional Innovation Research,
(2018), NYC, Amsterdam and Barcelona launch Cities for Digital Rights
OTHER 2018 https://www.urenio.org/2018/11/19/nyc-amsterdam-barcelona-coalition-digital-rights/
M Brundage et al, (2018), The Malicious
Use of Artificial Intelligence: Forecasting, Prevention, and Mitigation
Int.Org. 2018 https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1802/1802.07228.pdf
ICDPPC, (2018), Declaration on Ethics and
Data Protection in Artificial Intelligence
Int.Org. 2018 https://icdppc.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/20180922_ICDPPC-40th_AI-Declaration_ADOPTED.pdf
Council of Europe, The Committee of
Experts on Internet Intermediaries (MSI-NET), (2018), Study on the Human
Rights Dimensions of Auotmated Data Processing techniques (DGI2017-12)
CoE 2018 https://rm.coe.int/algorithms-and-human-rights-en-rev/16807956b5
Alessandro Mantelero, Preliminary report
on “Artificial intelligence”, June 2018.
Int.Org. 2018 https://rm.coe.int/report-on-artificial-intelligence-artificial-intelligence-and-data-pro/16808b2e39
OHCHR, (2018), Report of the Special
Rapporteur on the right to privacy
Int.Org. 2018 https://ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/RegularSessions/Session37/Documents/A_HRC_37_62_EN.docx
G7, Charlevoix Common Vision for the
Future of Artificial Intelligence, (2018)
Int.Org. 2018 http://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2018/06/09/the-charlevoix-g7-summit-communique/pdf
Council of Europe, Commissioner for Human
Rights, (2018), Safeguarding human rights in the era of artificial
CoE 2018 https://www.coe.int/en/web/commissioner/-/safeguarding-human-rights-in-the-era-of-artificial-intelligence?inheritRedirect=true
Council of Europe, (2018), European
Ethical Charter on the Use of Artificial Intelligence in Judicial Systems and
their environment
CoE 2018 https://rm.coe.int/ethical-charter-en-for-publication-4-december-2018/16808f699c
Privacy International, (2018), Privacy and
Freedom of Expression In the Age of Artificial Intelligence
Int.Org. 2018 http://privacyinternational.org/sites/default/files/2018-04/Privacy%20and%20Freedom%20of%20Expression%20%20In%20the%20Age%20of%20Artificial%20Intelligence.pdf
World Economic Forum, (2018), How to
prevent Discriminatory Outcomes in Machine Learning
Int.Org. 2018 http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_40065_White_Paper_How_to_Prevent_Discriminatory_Outcomes_in_Machine_Learning.pdf
Amnesty International and Access Now,
(2018), The Toronto Declaration: Protecting the rights to equality and
non-discrimination in machine learning systems
Int.Org. 2018 https://www.accessnow.org/cms/assets/uploads/2018/08/The-Toronto-Declaration_ENG_08-2018.pdf
Amnesty International, (2018), World
Economic Forum How to Prevent Discriminatory Outcomes in Machine Learning
Int.Org. 2018 http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_40065_White_Paper_How_to_Prevent_Discriminatory_Outcomes_in_Machine_Learning.pdf
ACLU Massachusetts, (2018), Face
Surveillance Moratorium Support Letter
Int.Org. 2018 https://action.aclu.org/webform/ma-face-surveillance-moratorium-letter
European Commission, (2018), Declaration
on cooperation on AI, 10.04.2018 List of signatory countries of Declaration:
Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland,
France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg,
Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, UK,
Norway, Romania, Greece, Cyprus.
EU 2018 http://ec.europa.eu/newsroom/dae/document.cfm?doc_id=50951
Council of Europe, (2018), Declaration by
the Committee of Ministers on the manipulative capabilities of algorithmic
CoE 2018 https://search.coe.int/cm/pages/result_details.aspx?ObjectId=090000168092dd4b
United Nations Special Rapporteur on the
right to privacy, Big Data-Open Data interim report
Int.Org. 2018 https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Privacy/SR_Privacy/ConsultationBDODReportDec2017.pdf
European Commission, (2018), High-Level
Expert Group on Artificial Intelligence, Ethics Guidelines for Trustworthy AI
EU 2018 https://ec.europa.eu/futurium/en/ai-alliance-consultation/guidelines#Top
European Commission, (2018), High-Level
Expert Group on Artificial Intelligence, Policy and investment
recommendations for trustworthy Artificial Intelligence
EU 2018 https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/news/policy-and-investment-recommendations-trustworthy-artificial-intelligence
Austria, Parlament, (2017),
Sicherheitspolizeigesetz, Bundesstraßen-Mautgesetz 2002 u.a., Änderung
AT 2017 https://parlament.gv.at/PAKT/VHG/XXV/ME/ME_00326/index.shtml#tab-Uebersicht
Belgium, Commission de Protection de la
Vie Privée, (2017) Rapport Big Data
BE 2017 https://www.autoriteprotectiondonnees.be/sites/privacycommission/files/documents/Rapport_Big_Data_2017.pdf
Belgium, Privacy Commission, (2017),
‘Commission de la protection de la vie privée/Commissie voor de bescherming
van de persoonelijke levensfeer’, Big Data Rapport
BE 2017 https://www.privacycommission.be/sites/privacycommission/files/documents/Big
Data voor MindMap 22-02-17 fr.pdf
Germany, German Bundestag (Deutscher
Bundestag) (2017), Maßnahmenplan der Bundesregierung zum Bericht der
Ethik-Kommission Automatisiertes und Vernetztes Fahren (Ethik-Regeln für
DE 2017 http://dipbt.bundestag.de/doc/btd/18/135/1813500.pdf
Germany, Federal Cartel Office
(Bundeskartellamt) (2017), Big Data und Wettbewerb
DE 2017 http://www.bundeskartellamt.de/SharedDocs/Publikation/DE/Schriftenreihe_Digitales/Schriftenreihe_Digitales_1.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=3
The German Ethics Council, Big Data und
Gesundheit – Datensouveränität als informationelle Freiheitsgestaltung,
DE 2017 http://www.ethikrat.org/dateien/pdf/stellungnahme-big-data-und-gesundheit.pdf
Denmark, Ministry of Justice, (2017),
Draft bill on police use of database-based analysis tools and access to
airline information
DK 2017 https://hoeringsportalen.dk/Hearing/Details/60330
Denmark, Ministry of Justice, (2017),
Draft to Administrative Act on the police’s assessment of information in
relation to transverse information analyses , ‘Udkast til bekendtgørelse om
politiets behandling af oplysninger i forbindelse med tværgående informationsanalyser’
DK 2017 http://prodstoragehoeringspo.blob.core.windows.net/895de71e-8a6a-4ca2-a502-f740ede81b13/Udkast
til bekendtg%C3%B8relse om politiets behandling af oplysninger i forbindelse
med tv%C3%A6rg%C3%A5ende informationsanalyser – h%C3%B8ringsversion
Denmark, The Ministry of Justice, (2017),
Data Protection Regulation – and the legal framework for Danish law,
‘Databeskyttelsesforordningen – og de retlige rammer for dansk
DK 2017 http://www.justitsministeriet.dk/sites/default/files/media/Pressemeddelelser/pdf/2017/betaenkning_nr._1565_del_i_bind_1.pdf
The Danish Institute for Human Rights,
Police use of data-based analysis tools and access to information on air
passengers, (2017), ‘Politiets anvendelse af databaserede analyseredskaber og
adgang til oplysninger om flypassagerer’
DK 2017 https://menneskeret.dk/hoeringssvar/politiets-anvendelse-databaserede-analyseredskaber-adgang-oplysninger-flypassagerer
Danish Institute for Human Rights (2017),
Consultation on draft executive order on police information processing in the
context of cross-cutting information analysis
DK 2017 https://menneskeret.dk/sites/menneskeret.dk/files/08_august_17/hoeringssvar_vedr_udkast_til_bekendtgoerelse_om_politiets_behandling_af_oplysninger_i_forbindelse_med_tvaergaaende_informationsanalyser.pdf
Danish Institute for Human Rights (2017),
Consultation on the proposal for a law on additional provisions for the
regulation on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of
personal data and on the free exchange of such information (Data Protection
DK 2017 https://menneskeret.dk/sites/menneskeret.dk/files/08_august_17/hoeringssvar_vedr_udkast_til_forslag_til_databeskyttelseslov.pdf
Estonia, Estonian Data Protection
Inspectorate, (2017), Big data and Privacy Guide for Organizations, ‘
Suurandmed ja privaatsus: Juhendmaterjal organisatsioonidele’
EE 2017 http://www.aki.ee/sites/www.aki.ee/files/elfinder/article_files/suurandmed_ja_privaatsus.pdf
Estonia, Chancellor of Justice, Annual
Report 2016/2017, (2017)
EE 2017 http://www.oiguskantsler.ee/ylevaade2017/
Spain, Spanish Agency for Data Protection
(AEPD), (2017), ‘Statute book of good practices in data protection for Big
Data (Código de buenas prácticas en protección de datos para proyectos de Big
ES 2017 https://www.aepd.es/media/guias/guia-codigo-de-buenas-practicas-proyectos-de-big-data.pdf
YLE News, (2017), ‘PM Sipilä urges MPs to
support fast-tracked intelligence law, says “the right to life is more
important than the right to privacy”’
FI 2017 https://yle.fi/uutiset/3-9787917
France, Commission Nationale de
l’Informatique et des Libertés (CNIL), (2017), The Oracle of the Net,
‘L’oracle du net’
FR 2017 www.cnil.fr/fr/loracle-du-net-une-experience-pour-savoir-comment-les-algorithmes-nous-calculent
France, Commission Nationale de
l’Informatique et des Libertés (CNIL), Algorithms used by the administration:
towards more transparency, ‘Algorithmes utilisés par l’administration : vers
plus de transparence’
FR 2017 https://www.cnil.fr/fr/comment-permettre-lhomme-de-garder-la-main-rapport-sur-les-enjeux-ethiques-des-algorithmes-et-de
France, Commission Nationale de
l’Informatique et des Libertés (CNIL), How can humans keep the upper hand?
Report on the ethical matters raised by algorithms and artificial
FR 2017 https://www.cnil.fr/en/how-can-humans-keep-upper-hand-report-ethical-matters-raised-algorithms-and-artificial-intelligence
France, Parliamentary Office for the
Evaluation of Scientific and Technological Choices (OPECST), (2017), Report
FR 2017 http://www.senat.fr/rap/r16-464-1/r16-464-11.pdf
France, Legifrance, Decree No. 2017-330 on
the rights of individuals subject to individual decisions taken on the basis
of algorithmic processing (2017)
FR 2017 www.legifrance.gouv.fr/eli/decret/2017/3/14/PRMJ1632786D/jo/texte
European Commission, EC News, (2017),
Croatia is also participating in EU plans to build a new generation of
supercomputers, ‘I Hrvatska sudjeluje u planovima EU-a za izgradnju nove
generacije superračunala’
EU 2017 ec.europa.eu/croatia/sites/croatia/files/docs/20171120_ec-news.pdf
Croatia, High Police School, (2017),
International scientific and professional conference on "Big Data in Law
Enforcement: from Reactive to Proactive“
HR 2017 https://www.mup.hr/bigdata2017hr
Hungary, National Privacy and Freedom of
Information, (2017), Letter of the Head of the Hungarian Authority for Data
Protection and Information Freedom
HU 2017 http://naih.hu/files/NAIH-3825-2-2017-J-170802.pdf
Hungary, (2017), Draft Proposal on the
amendment of certain laws related to interior matters and other areas in
connection with interior affairs
HU 2017 https://net.jogtar.hu/jr/gen/hjegy_doc.cgi?docid=A1700134.TV&txtreferer=00000003.TXT
Guarantor for the protection of personal
data, Big Data: Agcom, Antitrust and Privacy Guarantor start a survey, (2019)
IT 2017 http://www.garanteprivacy.it/web/guest/home/docweb/-/docweb-display/docweb/6441412
National Authority for Protection of
Communications, Official press release concerning big data (2017)
IT 2017 http://www.agcom.it/documents/10179/7834943/Comunicato+stampa+30-06-2017/9ac8d843-3941-4e4d-9cf3-35a0bad10440?version=1.0
Netherlands, The Netherlands Scientific
Council for Government Policy, (2017), Big Data and Security Policies:
Serving Security, Protecting Freedom
NL 2017 https://english.wrr.nl/binaries/wrr-eng/documents/policy-briefs/2017/01/31/big-data-and-security-policies-serving-security-protecting-freedom/WRR_PB6_BigDataAndSecurityPolicies.pdf
Netherlands, Bulletin of Acts, Orders and
Decrees of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, (2017), Decision of 13 June 2017,
establishing from the date of entry into force of the Act of 5 October 2016
amending the Law use citizen service number in healthcare, the Act health
care market organization and the Health Insurance Act (client rights at
electronic processing of data) (Bulletin of Acts and Decrees 2016, 373)
NL 2017 https://zoek.officielebekendmakingen.nl/stb-2017-279.pdf
Inspector General for the Protection of
Personal Data, Information on processing and access to geolocation data,
PL 2017 http://www.giodo.gov.pl/pl/1520297/10068
Poland, Ministry of Finance, (2017), The
draft of the new Law on counteracting money laundering and financing of
PL 2017 https://legislacja.rcl.gov.pl/projekt/12298001
Poland, Ministry of Finance (Ministerstwo
Finansów), The draft law on Central Account Base (Projekt ustawy o Centralnej
Bazie Rachunków z 22 grudnia 2016 r.), 22 December 2016, available at:
PL 2017 http://legislacja.rcl.gov.pl/projekt/12293403
Poland, Ministry of Finance (Ministerstwo
Finansów), The draft law on The draft law amending certain acts to counter
the use of the financial sector for tax fraud (Projekt ustawy o zmianie
niektórych ustaw w celu przeciwdziałania wykorzystywaniu sektora
finansowego do wyłudzeń skarbowych), Ref. no. 1880, available at:
PL 2017 www.sejm.gov.pl/Sejm8.nsf/PrzebiegProc.xsp?id=634548E5640B6BB3C12581AF00514941
Poland, Sejm, The draft law proposal on
Central Registration and Information on Economic Activity – overview of
the legislative works on the proposal, available at:
PL 2017 www.sejm.gov.pl/sejm8.nsf/PrzebiegProc.xsp?nr=2053
Portugal, Resolution of the Council of
Ministers 188/2017, Approving the Regulation of the Data Centre of the
Defence Strategic Intelligence Service and of the Data Centre of the Security
Intelligence Service, (2017)
PT 2017 https://dre.pt/web/guest/home/-/dre/114303789/details/maximized?serie=I&day=2017-12-05&date=2017-12-01.
Diário de Notícias, (2017), Experts warn
of big data privacy risk, ‘Especialistas alertam para risco de falta de
privacidade do ‘big data’’
PT 2017 https://www.dn.pt/lusa/interior/especialistas-alertam-para-risco-de-falta-de-privacidade-do-big-data-8568084.html
Sweden, Ministry of Justice, (2017), How
to strengthen personal integrity
SE 2017 http://www.regeringen.se/4ac6ee/contentassets/56e701d354824bcb9826ea0839ab28f3/sa-starker-vi-den-personliga-integriteten-sou-201752
Sweden, Ministry of Enterprise and
Innovation, (2017), Governmental strategy, For a sustainable digitized
Sweden-a digitization strategy
SE 2017 http://www.regeringen.se/49adea/contentassets/5429e024be6847fc907b786ab954228f/digitaliseringsstrategin_slutlig_170518-2.pdf
Weebly.com, Big Data: New Challenges for
Law and Ethics, International scientific conference, (2017)
SI 2017 https://big-data-ljubljana-2017.weebly.com/uploads/1/1/9/1/1191873/big-data-2017-print.pdf
Slovenia, The Ministry of Public
Administration, (2017), Press release, Open Data of Slovenia
SI 2017 http://nio.gov.si/nio/asset/portal+odprti+podatki+slovenije-744?lang=en
Slovakia, The Office of the Vice-President
of the Government for Investment and Informatisation, (2017), Strategic
Priority the Data Management
SK 2017 http://www.informatizacia.sk/ext_dok-uppvii_sp_manazment_udajov_vfinal/24196c
UK, Information Commissioner’s Office,
(2017), Guidance on political campaigning
UK 2017 https://ico.org.uk/media/for-organisations/documents/1589/promotion_of_a_political_party.pdf
UK, Information Commissioner’s Office
(2017), ‘ICO big data report wins Global Privacy and Data Protection Award’,
26 September 2017, available at: http://bit.ly/2wuLghF
UK 2017 https://ico.org.uk/about-the-ico/news-and-events/news-and-blogs/2017/09/ico-big-data-report-wins-global-privacy-and-data-protection-award/
UK, Information Commissioner’s Office,
Information Commissioner’s Office Blog, (2017), Big data and the insurance
UK 2017 https://ico.org.uk/about-the-ico/news-and-events/news-and-blogs/2017/03/blog-big-data-and-the-insurance-sector/
UK, Department for Digital, Culture, Media
and Sport, (2017), New national innovation centre to put UK at forefront of
big data
UK 2017 https://www.gov.uk/government/news/new-national-innovation-centre-to-put-uk-at-forefront-of-big-data
Dame Wendy Hall and Jérôme Pesenti,
(2017), Growing the artificial intelligence industry in the UK
UK 2017 https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/growing-the-artificial-intelligence-industry-in-the-uk
HM Government
Industrial Strategy: Building a Britain fit for the future
UK 2017 https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/664563/industrial-strategy-white-paper-web-ready-version.pdf
European Parliament, (2017), Resolution on
Fundamental rights implications of big data: privacy, data protection,
non-discrimination, security and law-enforcement
EU 2017 http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+TA+P8-TA-2017-0076+0+DOC+XML+V0//EN
European Parliament, (2017), Resolution
with recommendations to the Commission on Civil Law Rules on Robotics
EU 2017 http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+TA+P8-TA-2017-0051+0+DOC+XML+V0//EN
European Economic and Social Committee
(EESC), (2017), Adopted Opinion on Building a European Data Economy
EU 2017 http://webapi.eesc.europa.eu/documentsanonymous/EESC-2017-00654-00-00-AC-TRA-en.docx
European Economic and Social Committee
(EESC), (2017), Adopted Opinion on Artificial Intelligence
EU 2017 https://www.eesc.europa.eu/en/our-work/opinions-information-reports/opinions/artificial-intelligence
Council of the European Union, (2017),
Conclusions of the European Council Meeting
EU 2017 http://www.consilium.europa.eu/media/21620/19-euco-final-conclusions-en.pdf
European Commission, (2017), Article 29
Working Party, Guidelines on Automated individual decision-making and
Profiling for the purposes of Regulation 2016/679
EU 2017 http://ec.europa.eu/newsroom/document.cfm?doc_id=47742
European Commission, (2017), Article 29
Working Party,Opinion on some key issues of the Law Enforcement Directive (EU
EU 2017 http://ec.europa.eu/newsroom/just/document.cfm?doc_id=48804
UNESCO, International Bioethics Committee,
(2017), Report on Big Data and Health
Int.Org. 2017 http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002487/248724e.pdf
Council of Europe, Recommendation
CM/Rec(2017)8 of the Committee of Ministers to member States on Big Data for
culture, literacy and democracy, (2017)
CoE 2017 https://rm.coe.int/0900001680750d68
CoE, Committee of experts on Media
Pluralism and Transparency of Media Ownership, (2017), Draft study on the use
of internet in electoral campaigns
CoE 2017 https://rm.coe.int/draft-study-on-the-use-of-internet-in-electoral-campaigns-fourth-revis/16807665e5
CoE Parliamentary Assembly, Committee on
Culture, Science, Education and Media, (2017), Recommendation 2102 (2017)
“Technological convergence, artificial intelligence and human rights”
CoE 2017 http://assembly.coe.int/nw/xml/XRef/Xref-XML2HTML-en.asp?fileid=23726&lang=en
CoE, Consultative Committee of the
Convention 108 Guidelines on the protection of individuals with regard to the
processing of personal data in a world of Big Data, (2017)
CoE 2017 https://rm.coe.int/16806ebe7a
United Nations Interregional Crime and
Justice Research Institute (UNICRI), (2017), Report on the Risks and Benefits
of Artificial Intelligence and Robotics
Int.Org. 2017 http://unicri.it/in_focus/files/Report_UNICRI_Cambridge_Workshop_Feb_2017.pdf
The Future Society, AI Initiative, (2017),
Making the AI revolution work for everyone
Int.Org. 2017 http://ai-initiative.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Making-the-AI-Revolution-work-for-everyone.-Report-to-OECD.-MARCH-2017.pdf
Council of Europe, Committee of Ministers,
(2017), Recommendation CM/Rec(2017)8 of the Committee of Ministers to member
States on Big Data for culture, literacy and democracy
CoE 2017 https://rm.coe.int/1680750d68
Austria, Data Market Austria, (2016) AT 2016 https://datamarket.at/en/
Finland, Data Protection Ombudsman,
(2017), Statement on the draft Government proposal for the secure processing
of social and health data of individuals
FI 2016 http://www.innokyla.fi/documents/1598478/ac0098a7-c110-46dd-ba02-2055bdbebc30
France, Legifrance, Law No. 2016-1321 for
a Digital Republic (2016)
FR 2016 www.legifrance.gouv.fr/eli/loi/2016/10/7/ECFI1524250L/jo
Luxembourg, Third Industrial Revolution
Consulting Group, “The 3rd Insdustrial Revolution Strategy Study”, (2016)
LU 2016 http://www.troisiemerevolutionindustrielle.lu/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/TIR-CG_Luxembourg-Final-Report_Long-Version.pdf
Slovakia, Deputy Prime Minister of the
Slovak Republic for Investment and Informatics, (2016), National Conception
of Informatisation of public sector of the Slovak Republic
SK 2016 http://www.informatizacia.sk/narodna-koncepcia-informatizacie-verejnej-spravy–2016-/22662c
Council of Europe, (2016), Study on the
Human Rights Dimensions of Automated Data Processing Techniques (in
particular Algorithms,) and Possible Regulatory Implications
CoE 2016 http://rm.coe.int/study-on-algorithmes-final-version/1680770cbc
Belgium, Digital Belgium, (2015), 5
BE 2015 http://digitalbelgium.be/en/5-priorities/digital-infrastructure/